calcium supplements for pregnant bitches
Ok. I will
go over this calcium thing once again..... I meet with
a certain amount of resistance to this information every
time I post it, which gets discouraging. What I am going
to say about calcium is not simply my casual opinion,
it is pure scientific fact.
Cardiologist Discovers Gene for Heart Disease
||Heart Disease News
Washington State University
veterinary cardiologist Kathryn M. Meurs has discovered
a mutant gene in the Boxer breed that causes a type
of heart disease that can be fatal in animals and humans.
As a breeder since 1977
of a customarily docked breed (Boxers) the current heated
and emotive debate around tail docking is obviously
of great interest to me. Both those defending tail docking
and those opposing it claim that their arguments have
a scientific basis. In an effort to reach some clarity
in my own mind about the matter, I decided to try and
examine the scientific underpinning of the cases made
by the two opposing lobbies, particularly on the issue
poisoning in dogs
DVM Danville Veterinary Clinic
Danville , Ohio
This week I had the first
case in history of raisin toxicity ever seen at MedVet.
My patient was a 56-pound, 5 yr old male neutered lab
mix who ate half a canister of raisins sometime between
7:30 AM and 4:30 PM on Tuesday. He started with vomiting,
diarrhea and shaking about 1AM on Wednesday but the
owner didn't call my emergency service until 7AM.
|Training a Deaf Dog
Life long dog breeder
and exhibitor Joseph Strauss was looking forward to
the arrival of a new Boxer puppy as the two dogs already
in the family – another Boxer and a Dachshund-
were becoming elderly and less active.”I always
enjoy exercising with the dogs on the village green
or on the beach but they had lost much of their energy.
When my new boxer puppy – Jamie- arrived in April
I couldn’t wait to train him and go for some long
walks together” he said.
|Kennel Cough (Infectious Tracheobronchitis)
||Veterinary & Aquatic Services
Department, Drs. Foster & Smith
'Kennel Cough' is the term
that was commonly applied to the most prevalent upper
respiratory problem in dogs in the United States. Recently,
the condition has become known as tracheobronchitis,
canine infectious tracheobronchitis, Bordetellosis,
or Bordetella. It is highly contagious in dogs. The
disease is found worldwide and will infect a very high
percentage of dogs in their lifetime.
No calcium supplements
for pregnant bitches
By MYRA SAVANT, December 11, 2006
Ok. I will go over this calcium thing once
again..... I meet with a certain amount of resistance to this
information every time I post it, which gets discouraging.
What I am going to say about calcium is not simply my casual
opinion, it is pure scientific fact. Do you
all know how dangerous tobacco is? And yet you hear of 90
year old 3 pack a day smokers who live long lives and never
get cancer? They are the exception; not the rule.
Breeders who can supplement their bitches with calcium and
never run into problems are the exception; not the rule. Calcium
is exactly what I say it is.......and then you have your exceptions.....and
the exceptions get very verbal and usually want to challenge
the truth of what I am presenting to you.
I even run into breeders who say: "well, yes, I do
feed the raw diet and two of my last three deliveries were
c-sections, but it wasn't because of the diet. It was because
of a big puppy, badly positioned puppy etc."
No, it was because of the calcium levels of your
diet. That's why the bitch couldn't push out the
big puppy and why her contractions couldn't reposition the
sideways puppy or whatever.
Calcium is about muscle contractibility far more than it
is about bones and teeth. It causes muscle to be able to contract
smoothly and strongly. Oxytocin is about timing. It sets up
the timing for the contractions and determines when they start
and when they end. It alters the cell wall of the muscle cell
to allow calcium to enter the cell and let it cause the cell
fiber to contract. They work in tandem as a well-oiled and
If you supplement your bitch with calcium while she is gestating,
this includes a raw diet with raw bones, puppy kibble, cottage
cheese, yogurt, pet tabs or any other source of calcium, you
run a high rish of altering the ph of the mother's blood.
If the ph is altered, the hormone secreted by the para-thyroid
gland will do a less than efficient job of causing the release
of calcium from the bones of the bitch when she needs calcium
for strong contractions. The higher ph level will render the
hormone from the parathyroid gland to be virtually useless.
That hormone is the facilitator for releasing extra calcium
out of the bones when the bitch needs it for uterine contractions.
The result will be: inertia, inability to push out a puppy,
inability for the uterine muscle to contract appropriately
to bring about the repositioning of the puppy for delivery.
Following delivery, the decreased calcium level will cause
the mother to be unable to figure out how to mother. She may
lick incessantly, bark or growl at her puppies or lie on her
tummy refusing to allow them to nurse. A few days into the
post partum time, she may go into eclampsia, which is a seizure
disorder caused by low calcium levels.
AGAIN......these problems generally stem from the
calcium that is fed to the mother while she is gestating.
If you never supplement but feed your dog a good quality,
mid-priced kibble designed for all adult dogs (not puppies
or gestating moms) and you do not supplement with anything,
chances are very, very good that your mom's ability to pull
out calcium from her bones for those times when she needs
extra calcium for uterine contractions, parenting skills and
production of milk.....will be intact. In other words, it
is when we tamper that we run into problems. Give not a shred
of extra calcium to the gestating bitch.
Keep Calsorb on hand to use during whelping to encourage
stronger contractions, Give it generously to the
brand new mom and you will see her parenting skills return
to her within 15 minutes or so, and keep it on top of the
puppy pen in case your bitch goes into eclampsia.
However.....if you simply never tamper with the calcium
intake, chances are good you'll never need to supplement it
at all. If you don't tamper, the parathyroid gland and its
hormone will provide the extra calcium at those times when
it is needed.
Just don't tamper.....no cottage cheese.
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Discovers Gene for Heart Disease
Heart Disease news <http://www.health.am/cardio/cat/C280/>
Apr 28, 2009
Washington State University veterinary cardiologist Kathryn
M. Meurs has discovered a mutant gene in the Boxer breed that
causes a type of heart
disease that can be fatal in animals and humans.
Well known in the Boxer breed community, the disease is called
Boxer cardiomyopathy. The more formal term is arrhythmogenic
right ventricular cardiomyopathy or ARVC.
This is same type of heart
disease that caused the sudden death of 1950s college
and pro football great Joe Campanella at age 36, as he played
handball with the new head coach of the Baltimore Colts, Don
In Boxers, the disease can be fatal and frequently occurs
when the animals exercise or become excited. Occasionally,
they perish from the disease while at rest, too.
“Dr. Meurs’ discovery of both the gene and its
location is a tremendous achievement in the cardiology of
humans and animals,” said Bryan Slinker, dean of WSU’s
College of Veterinary Medicine, and a recognized cardiac disease
researcher. “This achievement not only helps Boxer breeders
avoid this disease but it also provides an extraordinary advancement
to the study of human heart
disease resulting from electrical conduction defects and
the resulting heart muscle changes that occur.”
The disease is well known in Boxers because the breed has
the highest incidence of this form of heart disease.
ARVC is also known to be an inherited disease
and breeders sometimes avoided breeding to certain lines of
Boxers yet were never completely sure if those lines had an
increased risk of disease. Additionally, the disease tends
to vary in severity between different dogs; key indications
that the disease had a dominant genetic origin.
Meurs began looking at the disease as an extension of her
work with inherited heart
disease in cats and dogs. This work is somewhat similar
to her work with breeds of cats that also suffer heart
disease and for which she has also discovered mutant genes.
Her lab developed a molecular probe for these mutations so
that cat owners now have a mechanism for screening for the
disease and breeding away from it.
Using an extremely powerful gene screening mechanism based
on a massive computer chip at the Broad Institute at MIT
with investigators Kerstin Lindblad-Toh and Evan Mauceli,
Meurs looked at thousands of regions of boxer dogs’
DNA simultaneously. The samples were collected with participation
by members of the American Boxer Club and the American Boxer
Charitable Foundation and were segregated into groups of dogs
with the disease and those with no evidence for the disease.
Once computer analysis identified a specific region of interest,
Meurs’ lab evaluated thousands of DNA sequences in affected
and unaffected dogs and identified a gene mutation in a gene
that normally codes for the production of a key cellular adhesive
protein. Subsequent studies done by WSU veterinary cardiologist,
Sunshine Lahmers, demonstrated that the cellular adhesive
proteins were located at the junction between cells in the
Theoretically, the conduction defect is in some way responsible
for a rapid, irregular heart beat that does not pump blood
efficiently. When blood is not pumped efficiently, there may
not be enough circulation maintained in the brain and other
organs. This can lead to fainting episodes or even sudden
cardiac death. Over time, the right, lower chamber of the
heart, called the right ventricle, begins to be infiltrated
by a fibrous fatty tissue and often has decreased contractile
ability. This change in the heart’s tissues can spread
to the wall between the heart chambers and even the left ventricle.
The structural changes that result in functional impairment
is the hallmark sign seen when a post mortem examination is
performed on the animal’s heart. Under the microscope,
the normal muscle appears solid and dense. The affected heart
muscle tissue is riddled with holes where the fibrous fatty
tissue has infiltrated stretching it like unorganized lace.
Meurs’ laboratory is now near obtaining a patent on
her discovery and is perfecting a genetic testing probe for
the gene mutation that will be used as a clinical screening
device. Shortly, Boxer owners will have the ability to take
a simple cheek swab of their dog and know whether or not it
carries the mutant gene. Cost of the screening is expected
to be about $70 and available within the next 1-2 months.
“In many cases, after the disease is diagnosed it
can be managed with medication for a long enough period of
time in a dog’s life that other diseases such as cancer
will be the cause of death,” said Meurs. “The
medications are not very expensive and there are generic forms
available, too. Average monthly costs are probably less than
$100.” Meurs said that, with her lab’s service,
Boxer owners and breeders will be able to identify dogs with
the mutant gene and are likely to breed away from the disease.
/Source: Washington State University /
BACK TO TOP
Marlien Heystek - Jakkalsdans Boxers
As a breeder since 1977 of a customarily docked breed (Boxers)
the current heated and emotive debate around tail docking
is obviously of great interest to me. Both those defending
tail docking and those opposing it claim that their arguments
have a scientific basis. In an effort to reach some clarity
in my own mind about the matter, I decided to try and examine
the scientific underpinning of the cases made by the two opposing
lobbies, particularly on the issue of cruelty.
A submission prepared by J. L. Holmes BVM&S MRCVS) appearing
on the “RSCV Vets for Docking” web site (http://www.vets4docking.org.uk)
in fact contains the statement: “A scientific community
would be expected to defend its view with science and considered
reason”. Absolutely. But do they? Just because an opinion
or a belief has been published somewhere and is quoted by
others does not mean it is “scientific”. Scientific
studies must be conducted under controlled conditions and
methods used must be free of bias. Results must be reliable
(reproducible) and findings must be valid. If they are not,
they are not scientific.
After wading through some of the mountain of articles to
be found on the Internet pertaining to the subject, I had
to conclude that neither camp actually bases its case on irrefutably
valid or convincing scientific data. On the other hand, what
both sides manage to do quite successfully and compellingly
is to prove just how unscientific many of their opponents’
In a 1996 report “Cosmetic Tail Docking of Dogs’
Tails” by Robert K Wansborough http://www.anti-dockingalliance.co.uk/page_4.htm
(on which Ms Monique Viljoen-Platts leans quite heavily in
her article in the February 2006 issue of “KUSA Dogs
in Africa”) he states quite early on: “This article
aims to provide scientific information relevant to the cosmetic
tail docking of dogs” but then immediately admits: "There
have been no scientific studies or double blind trials conducted
to compare the effects of tail docking in one sample of dogs
with a similar sample of undocked dogs. Similarly, there have
been no studies that measure the initial pain and the ongoing
pathological pain inflicted on docked dogs". He then
nevertheless proceeds with a long list of physiological and
anatomical anti-docking theories presented as conclusive scientific
evidence of the negative effects of docking on dogs.
On the other hand one of the mainstays of the case made
by the UK Council of Docked Breeds (CDB) (http://www.cdb.org/)
in support of docking is a letter from Prof. Dr. R. Fritsch,
Leader of the Clinic of Veterinary Surgeons, Justus-Lieberg-University,
to the German Kennel Club, which starts off as follows:
“I have been asked by the German Kennel Club to give
a professional opinion on the following questions:
• Will the removal of the tail and dewclaws without
anaesthetic on a four-day-old puppy, cause considerable pain?
• Is it necessary from the veterinary point of view,
to shorten the tail or amputate the dewclaws of certain breeds
The docking of tails and the removal of dewclaws in puppies
less than 4 days old without anaesthetic, is not connected
with any serious pain in such a way that it cannot be allowed
from the point of view of the protection of animals”.
Please note that this is a “professional opinion”
and not a conclusion arrived at by means of a scientific study.
He does refer to two VERY old studies (1941 and 1951) which
“…gives us every reason to believe that the actual
feeling of pain is very low in the new-born of this group
of mammals (dogs).”
Rehashing here all the arguments and counter-arguments, case
studies and horror stories presented by both the defenders
and detractors of tail docking would not serve any useful
purpose. In the absence of convincing scientific data on which
to base the decision to ban or not to ban, surely the status
quo should be maintained and breeders and their veterinarians
allowed the freedom to decide whether they wish to dock or
not, based on their own experience and beliefs.
After almost 30 years of breeding Boxers and close to sixty
litters, all of which were docked with me present, my own
beliefs are obviously the result of experience, not science.
Whether it is desirable or necessary to dock is of course
debatable, but I am really not convinced that the procedure,
when carried out correctly by a qualified veterinarian, with
the use of a local anaesthetic, is cruel. The reactions of
a puppy when immobilised, as it would be for docking, are
exactly the same whether the tail is actually cut off or not.
Is it not possible that the “escape response”
of puppies referred to by Mr Wansborough actually has more
to do with being restrained than being snipped? As for the
dam, if half the pups in the litter are left with her while
the other half are being docked and then changed around, any
anxiety experienced by the bitch is greatly reduced.
One does wonder why only the dog fraternity has been targeted
by the Veterinary Council and not the many thousands of farmers
who dock piglets and lambs, dehorn and brand calves, castrate
all kinds of animals, debeak chickens and carry out a multitude
of similar painful procedures with impunity, all without the
benefit of anaesthesia. Having lived on a farm, I cannot help
but compare the agonized bellows and struggling of a calf
being dehorned with the signs of discomfort briefly displayed
by a puppy being docked.
In closing, if Ms Viljoen-Platts’ male Boxer “struggles
each time he has to defecate” she should perhaps not
blithely blame it on his docked tail. Boxers do NOT normally
have difficulty defecating. Any dog that does, regardless
of the length of its tail, should be examined by a veterinarian
to eliminate the many possible causes. Obstruction, colitis,
prostatitis and perianal tumours are just a few. Or perhaps
his diet simply needs to be adjusted.
BACK TO TOP
DVM Danville Veterinary Clinic
Danville , Ohio
This week I had the first case in history of raisin toxicity
ever seen at MedVet. My patient was a 56-pound, 5 yr old male
neutered lab mix who ate half a canister of raisins sometime
between 7:30 AM and 4:30 PM on Tuesday. He started with vomiting,
diarrhea and shaking about 1AM on Wednesday but the owner
didn't call my emergency service until 7AM.
I had heard somewhere about raisins AND grapes causing acute
Renal failure but hadn't seen any formal paper on the subject.
We had her bring the dog in immediately. In the meantime,
I called the ER service at MedVet, and the doctor there was
like me - had heard something about it, but.... Anyway, we
contacted the ASPCA National Animal Poison Control Center
and they said to give IV fluids at 1 Ã,Â½
times maintenance and watch the kidney values for the next
The dog's BUN (blood urea nitrogen level) was already at 32
(normal less than 27) and creatinine over 5 ( 1.9 is the high
end of normal). Both are monitors of kidney function in the
bloodstream. We placed an IV catheter and started the fluids.
Rechecked the renal values at 5 PM and the BUN was over 40
and creatinine over 7 with no urine production after a liter
of fluids At the point I felt the dog was in acute renal failure
and sent him on to MedVet for a urinary catheter to monitor
urine output overnight as well as overnight care.
He started vomiting again overnight at MedVet and his renal
values have continued to increase daily. He produced urine
when given lasix as a diuretic. He was on 3 different anti-vomiting
medications and they still couldn't control his vomiting.
Today his urine output decreased again, his BUN was over 120,
his creatinine was at 10, his phosphorus was very elevated
and his blood pressure, which had been staying around 150,
skyrocketed to 220.. He continued to vomit and the owners
elected to euthanize.
This is a very sad case - great dog, great owners who had
no idea raisins could be a toxin. Please alert everyone you
know who has a dog of this very serious risk. Poison control
said as few as 7 raisins or grapes could be toxic. Many people
I know give their dogs grapes or raisins as treats including
our ex-handler's. Any exposure should give rise to immediate
BACK TO TOP
Training a Deaf Dog
Life long dog breeder and exhibitor Joseph
Strauss was looking forward to the arrival of a new Boxer
puppy as the two dogs already in the family – another
Boxer and a Dachshund- were becoming elderly and less active.”I
always enjoy exercising with the dogs on the village green
or on the beach but they had lost much of their energy. When
my new boxer puppy – Jamie- arrived in April I couldn’t
wait to train him and go for some long walks together”
Sadly, some two weeks after being introduced
to his new home and family, Joseph realised that Jamie was
not acting normally nor responding to spoken commands and
was using the presence of other dogs to react to events around
him. “I then had a suspicion that he could be deaf so
tried clapping my hands behind his head and even using a loud
whistle but there was no reaction so I knew it was true”.
Joseph contacted the breeder in Cape Town and asked what could
be done and the only suggestion was to return him and risk
an uncertain fate. “By this time Jamie had touched our
hearts and was riding around on the wheelchair of my friend
Jacques, who is disabled, and neither of us had the willpower
to exchange him” said Joseph.
Although he knew that training a dog without
any aural contact would be extremely difficult, Joseph patiently
worked out ways to communicate with him using his other senses.
He discovered that Jamie had a better than average sense of
smell and, most importantly, always kept him in sight and
reacted to hand signals instantly as if he needed the reassurance
to make up for the loss of his hearing.
Over the last six months Joseph has persisted
and has managed to train Jamie to be house proud and to respond
to commands just using visual signals. “In conventional
dog training I normally use a rolled up newspaper to get the
dog’s attention – never to hit him with but just
to make a loud noise into my palm. In Jamie’s case I
had to convince him of the importance of what I was telling
him without the noise. He seems to understand that I am trying
to help him and we have developed a common sign language that
we both understand”. Joseph explained that the waved
newspaper meant ‘Look at me and see what I am telling
you’ and an outstretched finger means ‘stop whatever
you are doing’”. Jamie has now learnt to watch
Joseph’s movements constantly. When the two other dogs
are curled up in their basket, Jamie sits patiently on the
floor watching Joseph and waiting for instructions. Most dogs
without this handicap listen for the sound of car keys to
signal that they might be taken for a walk but Jamie knows
where they are kept and waits for the sparkle of the keys
being picked up to get the same level of excitement.
“He is like my shadow, he watches
me everywhere I go” said Joseph.”I have taken
him to the village markets to get him used to people and often
they remark about what a beautiful dog he is and ask if I
am showing him. I would love to do this but, unfortunately,
the show rules disqualify deaf animals so it isn’t possible”.
He said that the experience of raising Jamie in this situation
is like helping a young deaf child to adapt to a world that
expects all five senses to be functioning. “It is still
a challenge and sometimes frustrating but I am a very patient
person” said Joseph.
Strangely Joseph has noticed a most endearing
habit that Jamie has acquired in spite of his handicap –when
he is running loose on the beach he is totally uninhibited
and not scared by the sound of the waves or the scream of
the seagulls. “When I see how happy he is I think sometimes
it can’t be so bad to be deaf” he said.
BACK TO TOP
Cough (Infectious Tracheobronchitis) in Dogs
Veterinary & Aquatic Services Department,
Drs. Foster & Smith
'Kennel Cough' is the term that was commonly
applied to the most prevalent upper respiratory problem in
dogs in the United States. Recently, the condition has become
known as tracheobronchitis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis,
Bordetellosis, or Bordetella. It is highly contagious in dogs.
The disease is found worldwide and will infect a very high
percentage of dogs in their lifetime.
Infectious agents involved
There are many different agents that can
cause of tracheobronchitis. The most common are parainfluenza
virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and mycoplasma.
Canine adenovirus type 2, reovirus, and canine herpes virus
are thought to possibly contribute to the disease, as well.
Although any one of these organisms can cause symptoms of
the disease, the majority of cases are the result of more
than one organism.
The most common viral agent is parainfluenza
virus. This common virus will cause mild symptoms lasting
less than 6 days unless there is involvement of other bacteria,
as is usually the case. Most 5-way vaccines and 'kennel cough'
vaccines offer some protection against this virus.
Bordetella bronchiseptica is the
most common bacteria isolated from dogs with tracheobronchitis.
Clinical signs of infections occur 2-14 days after exposure,
and if uncomplicated with other agents, symptoms will last
around 10 days. However, after the infection has been resolved,
the affected animal will continue to shed the bacteria for
6 to 14 weeks and can spread the disease to other susceptible
animals during that time. Bordetella is one of the agents
protected against through the use of intranasal 'kennel cough'
vaccines. Parainfluenza and Bordetella most commonly appear
together in infectious tracheobronchitis, creating a disease
that normally lasts from 14-20 days.
The most common symptom is a dry hacking
cough sometimes followed by retching. Many owners describe
the cough as having a 'honking sound.' A watery nasal discharge
may also be present. With mild cases, dogs continue to eat
and be alert and active. Many times, there is a recent history
of boarding or coming in contact with other dogs. In more
severe cases, the symptoms may progress and include lethargy,
fever, inappetence, pneumonia, and in very severe cases, even
death. The majority of severe cases occur in immunocompromised
animals, or young unvaccinated puppies.
Diagnosis is usually based on the symptoms
and a history of recent exposure to other dogs. Bacterial
cultures, viral isolation, and blood work can be performed
to verify individual agents of the disease, but due to the
characteristic nature of the symptoms, these tests are not
There are two treatment options depending
on the severity of the disease. In the most common mild (uncomplicated)
form of the disease, antibiotics may or may not be used. Treating
the mild case does not shorten the length in which the animal
will be a potential spreader of the disease. In addition,
bronchodilators like aminophylline or cough suppressants may
also be used in treatment of mild cases.
In more severe (complicated) cases where
the animal is not eating, running a fever, or showing signs
of pneumonia, antibiotics are often used. The most common
ones are doxycycline or trimethoprim-sulfa. However, many
other choices are also available. Steroids or cough suppressants
are not usually recommended because of the risk of immunosuppression
with steroids and the need to continue to clear extra fluid
or mucous in pneumonia patients. Bronchodilators and even
aerosol therapy can be used. In moderate or severe cases,
veterinary care should be instituted, as the resultant pneumonia
could become life threatening if not treated properly and
Because pressure on the throat and trachea
can make coughing worse, it is recommended that dogs with
a cough should wear a head collar or harness instead of a
regular neck collar.
Vaccination and prevention
The best prevention is to not expose your
dog to other dogs, especially young puppies. If this cannot
be avoided, then proper vaccination is the next best option.
Chances are that if your dog is regularly vaccinated with
a standard 5-way or 7-way vaccine, he is already being protected
against several of the agents causing tracheobronchitis, mainly
parainfluenza and adenovirus. However, these vaccines alone
rarely provide protection against contracting the disease,
although they will help reduce the severity of the disease
if the animal becomes infected.
There is an injectable Bordatella vaccine,
and one that is given intranasally (squirted into the nostrils).
Neither vaccine will totally prevent infection with Bordatella.
For the injectable vaccine, 2 doses must be given 3-4 weeks
apart, and protection does not occur until 1-2 weeks after
the second injection.
Do not give an intranasal vaccine as an
injection, as an abscess may occur.
More commonly, for best protection, an intranasal
vaccine containing both parainfluenza and Bordetella
is used. Intranasal vaccines create localized immunity that
greatly reduces the incidence of clinical signs and illness.
The vaccine may be used in puppies as young as 3 weeks of
age, only one dose is necessary to provide protection, and
protection occurs as early as 3-4 days following vaccination.
There are several precautions and warnings that need to be
observed pertaining to this vaccine. Some dogs will develop
mild signs similar to tracheobronchitis when given this vaccine.
Very often, the symptoms will last for several days and the
dog will recover without treatment. Dogs that are vaccinated
can also shed the virus and cause other dogs to become mildly
infected and show mild signs. This shedding usually lasts
less than 72 hours. In addition, it takes up to 4 days after
vaccination for dogs to develop protection. When you combine
these facts, you will see why it is strongly recommend that
a dog not be given intranasal vaccine within 72 hours of coming
into contact with other susceptible dogs. Do not give the
vaccine the day before a dog show, boarding, etc. Try to give
at least four days before contact with other dogs and preferably
7 days. This way you will protect your dog from becoming infected
by other dogs, and protect those dogs from becoming infected
In kennels where tracheobronchitis is a
problem, strict hygiene with thorough cleaning and disinfection
of cages and food and water containers is essential. In addition,
kennels that are indoors should have good ventilation with
an air turnover rate of at least 12 times an hour. Agents
causing tracheobronchitis can be transmitted on hands and
clothing as well as through the air, so infected animals must
be isolated and handlers should wear gloves and use proper
handwashing to help prevent spread. Vaccination of all animals,
especially puppies is indicated in problem kennels. After
initial vaccination as puppies, a yearly booster is recommended.
However, some dogs that are at very high risk are vaccinated
every six months.
Human health risk
Until recently, infectious tracheobronchitis
was considered to not be a human health risk. Recently however,
research indicates that Bordetella bronchiseptica
may cause disease in some humans, primarily those with compromised
immune systems. In normal, healthy adults there does not appear
to be a risk, but young children and immunocompromised individuals
should take precautions against coming into contact with animals
that have symptoms of tracheobronchitis.
'Kennel Cough,' now more commonly referred
to as 'infectious tracheobronchitis' is a widespread disease
caused by several different viruses and bacteria. It is usually
a self-limiting disease and most animals do not require treatment.
Intranasal vaccines are effective, but due to some possible
side effects are recommended for animals that are at higher
risk. Infectious tracheobronchitis is a disease of dogs and
wild canids, it does not appear to be a risk to healthy humans.
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